Automobiles are mechanical machines designed to move people from one location to another. Often referred to as motorcars, modern automobiles employ thousands of separate component parts. These machines are complex technical systems that have evolved through advancements in existing and emerging technologies, air pollution and safety legislation, and competition among manufacturers throughout the world.


Automobiles are ground-moving vehicles that are designed to carry a driver and a limited number of passengers. These vehicles often have multiple types of lights to increase the visibility of the vehicle. Modern automobile designs also incorporate heavier-gauge steel to absorb the energy of impacts.

Internal combustion engines

Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the heart of automobiles. In addition to their performance, they provide energy to the drivetrain and contribute to fuel economy. Research has been conducted to improve ICE performance and meet EPA emissions standards. These changes have also improved fuel efficiency and shortened 0-60 mph acceleration times.

Car body types

Historically, there have been at least 10 basic vehicle body types. These come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and price ranges. From the simple boxy machine to the iconic sculpture, cars have come a long way.

Safety features

Automobile safety has evolved to include a range of high-tech features that make driving easier and safer. Automakers are increasingly bundling these features into more affordable models. While the names of these features vary from one model to the next, they generally fall under two categories: occupant protection and accident avoidance.


Automobiles have various expenses associated with them. Some of these expenses are fixed and some are variable. The fixed costs include the cost of maintaining facilities, finding suppliers and testing prototypes. Variable costs are the cost of labor and raw materials.


The automobile industry provides a large number of jobs. It generates around 4.5 lakh direct and 1.3 crore indirect jobs. The industry is also an important contributor to the GDP of the country. In 2002, the industry contributed 4.7% of the country’s GDP, up from 2.77 per cent in 1992-93. Production of automobiles is usually concentrated in cities close to manufacturing centres for other industries, such as iron and steel, storage batteries, paints and ancillary industries.